Many individuals, agencies, and organizations contributed to the 2015 update of the Oregon Nearshore Strategy. Any work that addresses the complexity and dynamics of the nearshore ocean, and the values and uses that Oregonians apply to it, relies on the interactive efforts of many people. Their constructive participation has helped to build a whole that is greater than the sum of its parts.
We thank the following people and organizations for their tremendous effort, vision and insight:
To all Oregonians who shared their vision, values, and concerns for the future of Oregon’s marine environment.
Joe Liebezeit, Bob Sallinger, Audubon Society of Portland
Bill Kremers, The Association of Northwest Steelheaders
Jena Carter, Gway Kirchner, The Nature Conservancy
Gillian Lyons, The Pew Charitable Trusts
Mary Anne Nash, Oregon Farm Bureau
Seth Barnes, Oregon Forest Industries Council
Lisa DeBruyckere, Oregon Marine Reserves Partnership
Jim Burke, Oregon Coast Aquarium
Phillip Johnson, Robert Bailey, Oregon Shores Conservation Coalition
Fran Recht, Pacific States Marine Fisheries Commission
Ocean Policy Advisory Council: Executive Committee and Scientific and Technical Advisory Committee
David Allen, Jack Barth, Veronica Dujon, Gabriella Goldfarb, Elise Granek, Selina Heppell, Jan Hodder, William Jaeger, Scott McMullen, David Sampson, Gil Sylvia, Shelby Walker, Craig Young
Laurie Weitkamp, Waldo Wakefield, Bill Peterson, Ric Brodeur, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration – National Marine Fisheries Service Northwest Fisheries Science Center
Mark Finkbeiner, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Office for Coastal Management
Henry Lee, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency – Western Ecology Division
Debbie Reusser, U.S. Geological Survey – Western fisheries Research Center
Dawn Harris, Roberta Swift, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service
State Agencies and Institutions
Rob Bovett, Association of Oregon Counties
Andy Lanier, Department of Land Conservation and Development
Shelby Walker, Sarah Kolesar, Oregon Sea Grant
Judith Callens, Oregon Department of Agriculture
Chris Castelli, Oregon Department of State Lands
Laurel Hillman, Oregon State Parks and Recreation Department
Doug Baer, Oregon State Marine Board
John Chapman, Amanda Gladics, Gayle Hansen, Scott Heppell, Ivan Kuletz, James Rice, David Sampson, Robert Suryan, Leigh Torres, Oregon State University
James T. Carlton, Williams College
Kelsey Adkisson, Lindsay Adrean, Justin Ainsworth, Ron Anglin, Kevin Blakely, Matt Blume, Roxann Borisch, Ed Bowles, Caren Braby, Robin Brown, Troy Buell, Ted Calavan, Ethan Clemons, Kelly Corbett, Trevan Cornwell, Tony D’Andrea, Cristen Don, Megan Dugan, Jason Edwards, Daniel Erickson, Dave Fox, Mark Freeman, Colin Gillin, Craig Good, Kevin Goodson, Scott Groth, Bob Hannah, Andrea Hanson, Audrey Hatch, Matt Hunter, Brittany Huntington, Robert Ireland, Jo Jeans, Steve Jones, Lisa Kautzi, Delia Kelly, Chris Kern, Chris Knutsen, Gregory Krutzikowsky, Donna Lamb, Scott Malvitch, Scott Marion, Keith Matteson, Lynn Mattes, Patrick Mirick, Curt Melcher, Arlene Merems, Bill Miller, Jessica Moll, Cinamon Moffet, Kathy Munsel, Laura Tesler, Martin Nugent, Polly Rankin, Susan Riemer, Brett Rodomsky, Arthur Rodriguez, Steve Rumrill, Eric Schindler, Cyreis Schmitt, Jill Smith, Stacy Strickland, Charlie Stein, Maggie Sommer, Carla Sowell, Tom Stahl, Robert Swingle, Thomas Swearingen, Michelle Tate, Elizabeth Perroti, Mitch Vance, Ellen Ville-Smuts, Wolfe Wagman, Michelle Weaver, Alison Whitman, Nick Wilsman, Derek Wilson, Bryan Wright, Linda ZumBrunnen
Oregon Fish and Wildlife Commission
Holly Akenson, Laura Anderson, Jason Atkinson, Bruce Buckmaster, Michael Finley, Bob Webber, Gregory Wolley
Shannon Davis, The Research Group of Corvallis
The following people, agencies, and institutions generously provided photographs to help bring the Nearshore Strategy to life visually: Kelsey Adkisson, Bird Research Northwest, Ian Chun, Brandon Ford, Taylor Frierson, Amanda Gladics, Scott Groth, Gregory Krutzikowsky, Janna Nichols, NOAA Fisheries, ODFW, OSU Seabird Oceanography Lab, Laura Tesler
The Oregon Nearshore Strategy, authors and editors
Gregory K. Krutzikowsky, Kelsey Adkisson, Caren Braby, Dave Fox, Maggie Sommer, Thomas Swearingen, Ivan Kuletz, and Steve Rumrill
Oregon Nearshore Strategy. 2016. Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, Salem, OR 97302
Ainsworth, J.C., A.F. D’Andrea, M. Vance, S.D. Groth, E.A. Perotti. 2014. Status of Oregon Bay Clam Fisheries, Stock Assessment, and Research. Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife Information Reports Number 2014-09. Salem, OR.
Ainsworth, J.C., M. Vance, M.V. Hunter, and E. Schindler. 2012. The Oregon Recreational Dungeness Crab Fishery, 2007-2011. Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife Information Reports Number 2012-04. Salem, OR.
Andres, B.A., P.A. Smith, R.I.G. Morrison, C.L. Gratto-Trevor, S.C. Brown and C.A. Friis. 2012. Population estimates of North American shorebirds, 2012. Wader Study Group Bulletin 119(3): 178-194.
Bakun, A. 1990. Global climate change and intensification of coastal ocean upwelling. Science 247, 198-201
Baraff, L.S. and T.R. Loughlin. 2000. Trends and potential interactions between pinnipeds and fisheries of New England and the U.S. west coast. Marine Fisheries Review 62 (4):1-39.
Barth, J.S., B.A. Menge, J. Lubchenco, F. Chan, J.M. Bane, A.R. Kirincich, M.A. McManus, K.J. Nielsen, S.D. Pierce, and L. Washburn. 2007. Delayed upwelling alters nearshore coastal ocean ecosystems in the northern California current. PNAS 104(10), 3719-3724
Bindoff, N.L., J. Willebrand, V. Artale, A, Cazenave, J. Gregory, S. Gulev, K. Hanawa, C. Le Quéré, S. Levitus, Y. Nojiri, C.K. Shum, L.D. Talley and A. Unnikrishnan. 2007. Observations: Oceanic Climate Change and Sea Level. In: Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Solomon, S., D. Qin, M. Manning, Z. Chen, M. Marquis, K.B. Averyt, M. Tignor, and H.L. Miller (Eds.). Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA.
Brierley, A.S. and M.J. Kingsford. 2009. Impacts of climate change on marine organisms and ecosystems. Current Biology, 19: R602-R614.
Brown, A. C., and A. McLachlan. 1990. Ecology of sandy shores. New York, NY: Elsevier Science Publishers.
Brown. R. 1997. Pinnipeds in Oregon: status of populations and conflicts with fisheries, fish resources and human activities. In Pinniped populations, eastern North Pacific: Status, trends, and issues, eds. Gregory Stone, Jennifer Goebel, and Steven Webster, 124-134. Paper read at 127th Annual Meeting of the American Fisheries Society, August 28, 1997, at Monterey, CA.
Campbell, S., D. Azuma, and D. Weyermann. 2002. Forests of Western Oregon: An Overview. Via Internet: //www.fs.fed.us/pnw/publications/gtr525/gtr525a.pdf. Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-525. Portland, OR: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Research Station.
Carretta, J. V., E. Oleson, D. W. Weller, A. R. Lang, K. A. Forney, J. Baker, M. M. Muto, B. Hanson, A. J. Orr, H. Huber, M. S. Lowry, J. Barlow, J. E. Moore, D. Lynch, L. Carswell, and R. L. J. Brownell. 2015. U.S. Pacific marine mammal stock assessments: 2014. NOAA-TM-NMFS-SWFSC-549
CDFG. 2001. California’s living marine resources: a status report, edited by W. S. Leet, C. M. Dewees, R. Klingbeil and E. J. Larson. Sacramento, CA: California Dept. of Fish and Game.
Chan, F., J.A. Barth, J. Lubchenco, A. Kirincich, H. Weeks, W.T. Peterson, and B.A. Menge. 2008. Emergence of anoxia in the California Current large marine ecosystem. Science, 319: 920.
Chapman, J. W., B. R. Dumbauld, G. Itani, and J.C. Markhan. 2012. An introduced Asian parasite threatens northeastern Pacific estuarine ecosystems. Biological Invasions, 14: 1221-1236.
Clark, R.B. 2001. Marine pollution. Oxford, England: Oxford University Press.
Cope, J., E.J. Dick, A. MacCall, M. Monk, B. Soper, and C. Wetzel. 2015. Data-moderate stock assessments for brown, China, copper, sharpchin, stripetail, and yellowtail rockfishes and English and rex soles in 2013. Pacific Fisheries Management Council, Portland, OR.
Cope, J.M. and M. Key. 2009. Status of cabezon (Scorpaenichthys marmoratus) in California and Oregon waters assessed in 2009. Pacific Fishery Management Council, Portland, OR.
Constantine, R., D.H. Brunton, and T. Dennis. 2004. Dolphin-watching tour boats change bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) behaviour. Biological Conservation 117:299-307.
Crain, C., K. Kroeker, and B. Halpern. 2008. Interactive and Cumulative Effects of Multiple Human Stressors in Marine Systems. Ecology Letters 11: 1304–1315.
Dayton, P.K., S. Thrush, and F.C. Coleman. 2002. Ecological effects of fishing in marine ecosystems of the United States. Arlington: Pew Oceans Commission.
Dick, E.J. and A.D. MacCall. 2010. Estimates of sustainable yield for 50 data-poor stocks in the Pacific coast groundfish fishery management plan. U.S. Department of Commerce, NOAA Technical Memo. NMFS-SWFSC-460.
Dick, E.J., M. Monk, I. Taylor, M. Haltuch, T. Tsou, and P. Mirick. 2015. Status of China rockfish off the U.S. Pacific coast in 2015. Pacific Fishery Management Council, Portland, OR.
Dumbauld, B. R., J. W. Chapman, M. E. Torchin, and A. M. Kuris. 20011. Is the collapse of mud shrimp (Upogebia pugettensis) populations along the Pacific Coast of North America caused by outbreaks of a previously unknown Bopyrid isopod parasite (Orthione griffenis). Estuaries and Coasts, 34: 336-350
DLCD. 2013. Oregon Territorial Sea Plan. Salem, OR: Oregon Department of Land Conservation and Development. Salem, OR
Eschmeyer, W.N., E.S. Herald, and H. Hammann. 1983. A field guide to Pacific Coast fishes of North America. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company.
Essington, T.E., P.E. Moriarty, H.E. Froehlich, E.E. Hodgson, L.E. Koehn, K.L. Oken, M.C. Siple, and C.C.Stawitz. 2015. Fishing amplifies forage fish population collapses. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 112 (21): 6648-6652.
Feely, R.A., C.L. Sabine, J.M. Herndandez-Ayon, D. Ianson, and B. Hales. 2008. Evidence for upwelling of corrosive “acidified” water onto the continental shelf. Science, 320: 1490-1492.
Fisher, B., R.K. Turner, and P. Morling. Defining and classifying ecosystem services for decision making. Ecological Economics 68:643-653. 2009.
Gertseva, V. and I.G. Taylor. 2012. Status of the spiny dogfish shark resource off the continental U.S. Pacific Coast in 2011. Pacific Fishery Management Council, Portland OR.
Gilbert, P.M., D.M. Anderson, P. Gentien, E. Granéli, and K.G. Sellner. 2005. The global, complex phenomena of harmful algal blooms. Oceanography 18(2):131-141.
González, J., F.G.Figueiras, M.Aranguren-Gassis, B.G.Fernández, X.A.G. Morán, and M. Nieto-Cid.2009. Effect of a simulated oil spill on natural assemblages of marine phytoplankton enclosed in microcosms. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, 83: 256-276.
Grantham, B.A., F. Chan, K.J. Nielsen, D.S. Fox, J.A. Barth, A. Huyer, J. Lubchenco, and B.A. Menge. 2004. Upwelling-driven nearshore hypoxia signals ecosystem and oceanographic changes in the northeast Pacific. Nature, 429: 749-754.
Griffen, B.D. 2009. Effects of a newly invasive parasite on the burrowing mud shrimp, a widespread ecosystem engineer. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 391: 73-83.
Hamel, O. S., Sethi, S. A., and Wadsworth, T. F. 2009. Status and future prospects for lingcod in waters off Washington, Oregon, and California as assessed in 2009. Pacific Fishery Management Council, Portland, Oregon.
Hannah, R.W. 2014. Length and age at maturity of female copper rockfish (Sebastes caurinus) from Oregon waters based on histological evaluation of ovaries. Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife Information Reports Number 2014-04. Salem, OR.
Hannah, R.W. and M.T.O. Blume. 2011. Maturity of female quillback rockfish (Sebastes maliger) and China rockfish (S. nebulosus) from Oregon waters based on histological evaluation of ovaries. Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife Information Reports Number 2011-01. Salem, OR.
Hannah, R.W., P.S. Rankin, and M.T.O. Blume. 2012. Use of a novel cage system to measure postrecompression survival of Northeast Pacific Rockfish. Marine and Coastal Fisheries: Dynamics, Management, and Ecosystem Science, 4(1): 46-56.
Hannah, R.W. and L.A. Kautzi. 2012. Age, growth and female maturity of vermillion rockfish (Sebastes miniatus) from Oregon waters. Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife Information Reports Number 2012-05. Salem, OR.
Hannah, R.W. and P.S. Rankin. 2011. Site fidelity and movement of eight species of Pacific rockfish at a high-relief rocky reef on the Oregon coast. North American Journal of Fisheries Management, 31: 483-494.
Hannah, R.W., D.W. Wagman, L.A. Kautzi. 2015. Cryptic speciation in the blue rockfish (Sebastes mystinus): age, growth and female maturity of the blue-sided rockfish, a newly identified species, from Oregon waters. Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife Information Reports Number 2015-01. Salem, OR.
Hanson, J., M. Helvey, and R. Strach. 2003. Non-fishing impacts to Essential Fish Habitat and recommended conservation measures: National Marine Fisheries Service (NOAA Fisheries).
Hastings, M.C. and Popper, A.N. 2005. Effects of sound on fish. California Department of Transportation Contract 43A0139 Task Order, 1. 82pp.
He, X., J.C. Field, D.E. Pearson, L. Lefebvre, and S. Lindley. 2015. Status of bocaccio, Sebastes paucispinis, in the Conception, Monterey and Eureka INPFC areas for 2015. Pacific Fishery Management Council, Portland, OR.
He, X., D.E. Pearson, J.C. Field, L. Lefebvre, and M. Key. 2013. Status of the U.S. Pacific sanddab resource in 2013. Pacific Fishery Management Council, Portland, OR.
Heal, G., E. Barbier, K. Boyle, A. Covich, S. Gloss, C. Hershner, J. Hoehn, C. Pringle, S. Polasky, K. Segerson, and K. Shrader-Frechette. Valuing Ecosystem Services: Toward Better Environmental Decision-Making. Washington D.C.: National Academies Press. 2005.
Hewson, I., J.B. Button, B.M.Gudenkauf, B. Miner, A.L. Newton, J.K. Gaydos, J. Wynne, C.L. Groves, G. Hendler, M. Murray, S. Fradkin, M. Breitbart, E. Fahsbender, K.D. Lafferty, A.M. Kilpatrick, C. M. Miner, , P. Raimondi, , L. Lahner, , C. S. Friedman, , S. Daniels, , M. Haulena, , J. Marliave, C.A. Burge, M.E. Eisenlord, and C.D. Harvell. 2014. Densovirus associated with sea-star wasting disease and mass mortality. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.111:17278-17283.
Hixon, M. A., S. V. Gregory, W. D., Robinson. 2010. Oregon’s fish and wildlife in a changing climate. In Oregon Climate Assessment Report. Oregon Climate Change Research Institute. Dello, K.D. and P.W. Mote (eds). College of Oceanic and Atmospheric Sciences, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR.Pp. 269-361.
Hoegh-Guldberg, O. and J.F. Bruno. 2010. The impact of climate change on the world’s marine ecosystems. Science , 328: 1523-1528.
Hooff, R.C. and W.T. Peterson. 2006. Copepod biodiversity as an indicator of change in ocean and climate conditions of the northern California current ecosystem. Limnology and Oceanography, 51(6): 2607-2620.
Huyer, A., P.A. Wheeler, P.T. Strub, R.L. Smith, R. Letelier, and P.M. Kosro. 2007. The Newport line off Oregon – Studies in the North East Pacific. Progress in Oceanography, 75(2): 126-160.
ICF International. 2010. Western Snowy Plover Habitat Conservation Plan. Final Environmental Impact Statement. Volume II Report. August. ICF 06537.06. Portland, OR. Prepared for U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.
Iles, A. C., T. C. Gouhier, B. A. Menge, J. S. Stewart, A. J. Haupt, and M. C. Lynch. 2012. Climate-driven trends and ecological implication of event-scale upwelling in the California Current System. Global Change Biology, 18: 783-796.
Juan-Jordá M.J. 2006. Integration of oceanographic information off the Washington and Oregon coasts into the ecology of groundfish and their management. MS thesis, Oregon State University. Corvallis, OR.
Keister, J.E., T.J. Cowles, W.T. Peterson, and C.A. Morgan. 2009. Do upwelling filaments result in predictable biological distributions in coastal upwelling ecosystems? Progress in Oceanography, 83: 303-313.
Keister, J.E., E. Di Lorenzo, C.A. Morgan, V. Combes, and W.T. Peterson. 2011. Zooplankton species compostion is linked to ocean transport in the Northern California Current. Global Change Biology, 17: 2498-2511.
Key, M., A.D. MacCall, T. Bishop, and B. Leos. 2005. Stock assessment of the gopher rockfish (Sebastes carnatus). Pacific Fishery Management Council, Portland, OR.
Kocourek, A.L., S.W. Stephensen, K.J. So, A.J. Gladics, and J. Ziegler. 2009. Burrow-nesting seabird census of the Oregon Coast National Wildlife Refuge Complex, June – August 2008. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Report. Oregon Coast National Wildlife Refuge Complex, Newport, Oregon. 63 pp.
Kramer, D.E., and V.M. O’Connell. 1995. Guide to Northeast Pacific Rockfishes. Alaska Sea Grant Marine Advisory Bulletin No. 25.
Krueger, K.L., K.B. Pierce Jr., T. Quinn, and D.E. Penttila. 2010. Anticipated effects of sea level rise in Puget Sound on two beach-spawning fishes. In Shipman, H., Dethier, M.N., Gelfenbaum, G., Fresh, K.L., and Dinicola, R.S., eds. Puget Sound Shorelines and the Impacts of Armoring—Proceedings of a State of the Science Workshop, May 2009: U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report 2010-5254, p. 171-178.
LaFranchi, C. and C. Daugherty. 2011. Non-consumptive Ocean Recreation in Oregon: Human Uses, Economic Impacts, and Spatial Data. Joint project between Surfrider Foundation, NaturalEquity, and Ecotrust.
Lewitus, A.J., R.A. Horner, D.A. Caron, E. Garcia-Mendoza, B.M. Hickey, M. Hunter, D.D. Huppert, R.M. Kudela, G.W. Langlois, J.L. Largier, E.J. Lessard, R. RaLonde, J.E.J. Rensel, P.G. Strutton, V.L. Trainer, and J.F. Tweddle. 2012. Harmful algal blooms along the North American west coast region: History, trends, causes, and impacts. Harmful Algae, 19: 133-159.
Love, Milton S. 2011. Certainty more than you want to know about the fishes of the Pacific Coast. Santa Barbara, CA: Really Big Press.
Love, Milton S., M. Yoklavich, and L. Thorsteinson. 2002. The rockfishes of the northeast Pacific. Berkeley and Los Angeles, CA: University of California Press.
Lusseau, D. 2003. Effects of tour boats on the behavior of bottlenose dolphins: Using Markov chains to model anthropogenic impacts. Conservation Biology 17:1785-1793.
Malme, C. I., P. R. Miles, C. W. Clark, P. Tyack, and J. E. Bird. 1983. Investigations of the potential effects of underwater noise from petroleum industry activities on migrating gray whale behavior. Report from Bolt Beranek and Newman Inc. for U.S. Minerals Management Service, Anchorage, AK.
McKinnell, S.M., S. Batten, S.J. Bograd, J.L. Boldt, N. Bond, S. Chiba, M.J. Dagg, M.G.G. Foreman, G.L. Hunt Jr., J.R. Irvine, O.N. Katugin, V. Lobanov, D.L. Mackas, P. Mundy, V. Radchenko, Y.J. Ro, H. Sugisaki, F.A. Whitney, A. Yatsu, and S. Yoo. 2010. Status and trends of the North Pacific Ocean, 2003-2008, pp. 1-55 In S.M. McKinnell and M. J. Dagg. [Eds.] Marine Ecosystems of the North Pacific Ocean, 2003-2008. PICES Special Publication 4, 393 pp.
Menge, B.A. and D.N.L. Menge. 2013. Dynamics of coastal meta-ecosystems: the intermittent upwelling hypothesis and a test in rocky intertidal regions. Ecological Monographs, 83(3), 238-310.
Molnar, J. L., Gamboa, R. L., Revenga, C., and Spalding, M. D. 2008. Assessing the global threat of invasive species to marine biodiversity. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 6: 485–492
Morris, R.H., D.P. Abbott, and E.C. Haderlie. 1981. Intertidal invertebrates of California. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press. Original edition, 1980.
Moss, M.L and J.M. Erlandson. 1996. Native American Archaeological Sites of the Oregon Coast: A Multiple Property Nomination to the National Register of Historic Places. Manuscript on file, Keeper of the National Register of Historical Places, National Park Service, Washington, D.C., and Oregon State Historic Preservation Office, Department of Parks and Recreation, Salem, OR.
Mote, P.W., D. Gavin, and A. Huyer. 2010. Climate change in Oregon’s land and marine environments. In Oregon Climate Assessment Report. Oregon Climate Change Research Institute. Dello, K.D. and P.W. Mote (eds). College of Oceanic and Atmospheric Sciences, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR. Pp. 1-45
Musick, J. A., M. M. Harbin, S. A. Berkeley, G. H. Burgess, A. M. Eklund, L. Findley, R. G. Gilmore, J. T. Golden, D. S. Ha, G. R. Huntsman, J. C. McGovern, S.J. Parker, S. G. Poss, E. Sala, T. W. Schmidt, G. R. Sedberry, Hal J. Weeks, and S. G. Wright. 2000. Marine, estuarine, and diadromous fish stocks at risk of extinction in North America (exclusive of Pacific salmonids). Fisheries 25 (11): 6-30.
National Ocean Council. 2013. National Ocean Policy Implementation Plan. Washington, DC: Executive Office of the President.
NatureServe. Ecosystem-based management tools network. On-line information at URL: //www.natureserve.org/conservation-tools/ecosystem-based-management-tools-network Accessed July 2015.
Naughton, M. B., D. S. Pitkin, R. W. Lowe, K. J. So, and C. S. Strong. 2007. Catalog of Oregon seabird colonies. U.S. Departmentof Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service, Biological Technical Publication FWS/BTP-R1009-2007, Washington, D.C.
NOAA. 2015. Protected resources species information. On-line information at URL: //www.nmfs.noaa.gov/pr/species Accessed August 2015.
Nowacek, D.P., L.H. Thorne, D.W. Johnston, and P.L Tyack. 2007. Responses of cetaceans to anthropogenic noise. Marine Mammal Review 37(2): 81-115.
O’Clair, R.M. and S.C. Lindstrom. 2000. North Pacific seaweeds. Auke Bay, AK: Plant Press.
O’Connor, S., R. Campbell, H. Cortez, and T. Knowles. 2009. Whale Watching Worldwide: Tourism Numbers, Expenditures and Expanding Economic Benefits. A special report from the International Fund for Animal Welfare, Yarmouth MA, USA. Prepared by Economists at Large.
ODFW. 1994. Oregon rocky shores natural resource inventory. Newport, OR: Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife Marine Region.
ODFW. 2003. Native fish conservation policy. Salem, OR: Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife.
ODFW. 2012a. Technical supplement to the Oregon Conservation Strategy: Potential impacts of global climate change in Oregon’s nearshore ocean. Salem, OR: Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife. Also available in Appendix A of this document.
ODFW. 2012b. The Oregon Conservation Strategy fact sheet: Climate change and Oregon’s nearshore open water habitat. Salem, OR: Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife. Available in Appendix B of this document.
ODFW. 2012c. The Oregon Conservation Strategy fact sheet: Climate change and Oregon’s subtidal habitats. Salem, OR: Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife. Available in Appendix B of this document.
ODFW. 2012d. The Oregon Conservation Strategy fact sheet: Climate change and Oregon’s intertidal habitats. Salem, OR: Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife. Available in Appendix B of this document.
ODFW. 2012e. Oregon Nearshore Strategy Implementation: Six years – Progress to date and next steps. Salem, OR: Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife.
ODFW. 2014. Dungeness crab research and monitoring plan. Salem, OR: Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife.
ODFW. 2015. Marine Fishery Management Plan Framework. Salem, OR: Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife.
Oregon Forest Resources Institute (OFRI). 2012. The 2012 Forest Report, An Economic Assessment of Oregon’s Forest and Wood Products Manufacturing Sector.
Oregon Parks and Recreation Department (OPRD). 2013. Oregon 2013-2017 Statewide Comprehensive Outdoor Recreation Plan: Ensuring Oregon’s Outdoor Recreation Legacy.
Osgood, K. E. (editor). 2008. Climate Impacts on U.S. Living Marine Resources: National Marine Fisheries Service Concerns, Activities and Needs. U.S. Dep. Commerce, NOAA Tech. Memo. NMFSF/SPO-89, 118 p.
PFMC. 2014. Pacific coast groundfish fishery management plan. Pacific Fishery Management Council, Portland, OR.
PFMC. 2014. Pacific coast salmon fishery management plan. Pacific Fishery Management Council, Portland, OR.
PFMC. 2014. Status of the Pacific coast groundfish fishery: Stock assessment and fishery evaluation. PFMC, Portland, OR. 280 pp.
Perry, A.L., P.J. Low, J.R. Ellis, and J.D. Reynolds. 2005. Climate change and distribution shifts in marine fishes. Science, 308: 1912-1914.
Peterson, W.T., J.E. Keister, and L.R. Feinberg. 2002. The effects of the 1997-99 El Niño/La Niña events on hydrography and zooplankton off the central Oregon coast. Progress in Oceanography, 54: 381-398.
PEW Ocean Commission. 2003. America’s living oceans: Charting a course for sea change. A report to the nation. Pew Ocean Commission, Arlington, Virginia.
Popper, A.N., A.D. Hawkins, R.R. Fay, D.A. Mann, S. Bartol, T.J. Carlson, S. Coombs, W.T. Ellison, R.L. Gentry, M.B. Halvorsen, S. Løkkeborg, P. H. Rogers, B.L. Southall, D.G. Zeddies, W.N. Tavoga. 2014. Sound exposure guidelines for fishes and sea turtles: A technical report prepared by ANSI-Accredited Standards Committee S3/SC1 and registered with ANSI. New York: Springer. 73 pp.
Popper, A.N. and M.C. Hastings. 2009. The effects of human-generated sound on fish. Integrative Zoology. 4, 43-52.
Ralston, S. 2005. An assessment of the starry flounder off California, Oregon, and Washington. Pacific Fishery Management Council, Portland, OR.
Responsive Management. 2013. Exploring Recent Increases in Hunting and Fishing Participation. Study conducted under a grant from the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and administered by the Association of Fish and Wildlife Agencies. Available at: //www.responsivemanagement.com/download/reports/Hunt_Fish_Increase_Report.pdf.
Rettig, B. 1989. OSU Department of Agricultural and Resource Economics, Unpublished Report.
Rhein, M., S.R. Rintoul, S. Aoki, E. Campos, D. Chambers, R.A. Feely, S. Gulev, G.C. Johnson, S.A. Josey, A. Kostianoy, C. Mauritzen, D. Roemmich, L.D. Talley, and F. Wang, 2013: Observations: Ocean. In: Climate Change 2013: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [Stocker, T.F., D. Qin, G.-K. Plattner, M. Tignor, S.K. Allen, J. Boschung, A. Nauels, Y. Xia, V. Bex and P.M. Midgley (eds.)]. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA.
Rice, C.A. 2006. Effects of shoreline modification on a northern Puget Sound beach: Microclimate and embryo mortality in surf smelt (Hypomesus pretiosus). Estuaries and Coasts, 29(1): 63-71.
Richardson, W. J., C. R. Greene, C. I. Malme, and D. H. Thomson. 1995. Marine Mammals and Noise. Academic Press, San Diego, California.
Rodomsky, B.T., L.A. Kautzi, R.W. Hannah, and C.D. Good. 2015. Kelp greenling (Hexagrammos decagrammus) growth, spawning seasonality, and female length at maturity based on histological evaluation of ovaries from Oregon waters. Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife Informational Reports Number 2015-02. Salem, OR.
Sampson, D.B. 2007. The status of black rockfish off Oregon and California in 2007. Pacific Fisheries Management Council, Portland, OR.
Shreeran, K. and T. Hesselgrave. 2012. Analysis of the economic benefits of salmon restoration efforts on the lower Coquille River and associated economic impact:. Report to the Nature Conservancy. Ecotrust, April 2012.
Shuford, W.D. and D.P. Craig. 2002. Status Assessment and Conservation Recommendations for the Caspian Tern (Sterna caspia) in North America. U.S. Department of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service, Portland, OR.
Sommer, M. 2004. Updates and revisions to the 2002 Oregon ocean shore protection structure inventory and GIS: A report to the Oregon Department of Land Conservation and Development and the Oregon Parks and Recreation Department.
Spalding, M.D., H.E. Fox, G.R. Allen, N. Davidson, Z.A. Ferdaña, M. Finlayson, B.S. Halpern, M.A. Jorge, A. Lombana, S.A. Lourie, K.D. Martin, E. McManus, J. Molnar, C.A. Recchia, and J. Robertson. 2007. Marine ecoregions of the world: A bioregionalization of coastal and shelf areas. BioScience, 57(7): 573-583.
Stone, G., J. Goebel, and S. Webster. 1997. Pinniped populations, eastern North Pacific: Status, trends, and issues. Paper read at 127th Annual Meeting of the American Fisheries Society, August 28, 1997, at Monterey, CA.
Sydeman, W.J., M. Garcia-Reyes, S.S. Schoeman, R.R. Ryaczewski, S.A. Thompson, B.A. Black, and S.J. Bograd. 2014. Climate change and wind intensification in coastal upwelling ecosystems. Science 345(6192). 77-80.
Taylor, I.G. and C. Wetzel. 2011. Status of the U.S. yelloweye rockfish resource in 2011 (update of the 2009 assessment model). Pacific Fishery Management Council, Portland, OR.
Tessler, D.F., J.A. Johnson, B.A. Andres, S. Thomas, and R.B. Lanctot. 2010. Black Oystercatcher (Haematopus bachmani) Conservation Action Plan. Version 1.1. International Black Oystercatcher Working Group, Alaska Department of Fish and Game, Anchorage, Alaska, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Anchorage, Alaska, and Manomet Center for Conservation Sciences, Manomet, Massachusetts. 115 pp.
The Research Group, LLC (TRG). 2015. Oregon’s Commercial Fishing Industry, Year 2013 and 2014 Review. DRAFT. Prepared for Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, and Oregon Coastal Zone Management Association.
The Research Group, LLC (TRG). 2014. Ten Year Update on Lincoln County, Oregon’s Economy. Prepared for Lincoln County Board of Commissioners, Newport, Oregon.
The Research Group, LLC (TRG). 2013. Oregon Marine Recreational Fisheries Economic Contributions in 2011 and 2012. Prepared for Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife and Oregon Coastal Zone Management Association.
The Research Group (TRG). 2006. A Demographic and Economic Description of the Oregon Coast: 2006 Update. Prepared for Oregon Coastal Zone Management Association. March 2006.
The White House Council on Environmental Quality. 2010 – Final recommendations of the interagency ocean policy task force July 19, 2010.. Washington, DC: Executive Office of the President.
Thomsen, F., K. Lüdemann, R.Kafemann, and W. Piper. 2006. Effects of offshore wind farm noise on marine mammals and fish, biola, Hamburg, Germany on behalf of COWRIE Ltd. 62pp.
Thorson, J.T. and C. Wetzel. 2015. The status of canary rockfish (Sebastes pinniger) in the California Current in 2015. Pacific Fishery Management Council, Portland, OR.
Tougaard, J., L. A. Kyhn, M. Amundin, D. Wennerberg, and C. Bordin. 2012. Behavioral reactions of harbor porpoise to pile-driving noise. Advances in experimental medicine and biology 730:277-280.
U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS). 2014. Wildlife Watching in the U.S.: The Economic Impacts on National and State Economies in 2011 – Addendum to the 2011 National Survey of Fishing, Hunting and Wildlife-associated Recreations. Report 2011-2.
U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS). 2008. Wildlife Watching in the U.S.: The Economic Impacts on National and State Economies in 2006.
West Coast Governors’ Alliance on Ocean Health. 2006. West coast Governors’ agreement on ocean health. Available at: //www.westcoastoceans.org/action-plan-documents
White, E.M., D. Goodding, and R.S. Rosenberger. 2012. Spending and Economic Activity From Recreation at Oregon State Parks – Coastal Region and Milo McIver State Park. Oregon State University.
Wilson, S.G. and T.R. Fischetti. 2010. Coastline Population Trends in the United States: 1960 to 2008. U.S. Census Bureau, Economics and Statistics Administration.
Wolotira, R.J., Jr., M.J. Allen, T.M. Sample, C.R. Iten, S. F. Noel, and R.L. Henry. 1989. Life history and harvest summaries for selected invertebrate species occurring off the west coast of North America. Volume 1: shelled molluscs. February 1989. U.S. Dept. of Commerce, NOAA Technical Memo. NMFS F/NWC-160.
Wright, B.E., S.D. Riemer, R.F. Brown, A.M. Ougzin, and K.A. Bucklin. 2007. Assessment of harbor seal predation on adult salmonids in a Pacific Northwest estuary. Ecological Applications, 17: 338-351.
Yamada, S.B. and G.E. Gillespie, 2008. Will the European green crab (Carcinus maenas) persist in the Pacific Northwest? – ICES Journal of Marine Science, 65: 725–729.
Zemanek, S.L. 2014. U.S. Travel and Tourism Satellite Accounts for 2010-2013. Via Internet: https://bea.gov/industry/iedguide.htm#ttsa Survey of Current Business.